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In October 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Greece, starting the Greco-Italian War. [131] The other reason was because Mussolini was planning on bringing millions of Italian colonists into Ethiopia and he needed to kill off much of the Ethiopian population to make room for the Italian colonists just as he had done in Libya. When Mussolini tried to flee to Germany after his overthrow in September, 1943, Vittorio was waiting with Hitler; he had already taken refuge there. Like all dictators he made liberal use of the threat of extrajudicial violence, as well as actual violence by his Blackshirts, to frighten his opposition.[93]. The truth is that Bolshevism is leading to the utter ruin of the Jews of Eastern Europe". It reads, Quoted in "Mussolini: A New Life", p. 276 by Nicholas Burgess Farrell. Sometimes he held as many as seven departments simultaneously, as well as the premiership. Sharma, Urmila. Informers betrayed their neighbors, squadristi seized Jews and delivered them to the German SS, and Italian journalists seemed to compete in the virulence of their anti-Semitic diatribes.[232]. He resigned from Avanti! [122] For Mussolini, Italy's current population of 40 million was insufficient to fight a major war, and he needed to increase the population to at least 60 million Italians before he would be ready for war. newspaper. He pretended to incarnate the new fascist Übermensch, promoting an aesthetic of exasperated Machismo that attributed to him quasi-divine capacities. [18][19][65] He legally recognized this son on 11 January 1916. As dictator of Italy and founder of the fascist movement, Mussolini inspired other totalitarian rulers such as Adolf Hitler, Francisco Franco, and António de Oliveira Salazar.[2][3][4][5][6]. This was the first time the body had met since the start of the war. [76], Borrowing the idea first developed by Enrico Corradini before 1914 of the natural conflict between "plutocratic" nations like Britain and "proletarian" nations like Italy, Mussolini claimed that Italy's principal problem was that "plutocratic" countries like Britain were blocking Italy from achieving the necessary spazio vitale that would let the Italian economy grow. My star has fallen. [110] His reported overhauling of the railway network led to the popular saying, "Say what you like about Mussolini, he made the trains run on time. [199], Mussolini made vitriolic attacks against Christianity and the Catholic Church, which he accompanied with provocative remarks about the consecrated host, and about a love affair between Christ and Mary Magdalene. It is a feeling, not a reality: ninety-five percent, at least, is a feeling. I await the end of the tragedy and—strangely detached from everything—I do not feel any more an actor. On Easter Sunday 1946, his body was located and dug up by Domenico Leccisi and two other neo-Fascists. [203] The Church also regained authority over marriage, Catholicism could be taught in all secondary schools, birth control and freemasonry were banned, and the clergy received subsidies from the state and was exempted from taxation. The Mussolini family is a well-known family in Italy. Furthermore, Italy was criticized for its use of mustard gas and phosgene against its enemies and also for its zero tolerance approach to enemy guerrillas, authorized by Mussolini. For this reason I am far from accepting (Alfred) Rosenberg's myth. sweeping the country. Benito Mussolini, Italian prime minister (1922–43) and the first of 20th-century Europe’s fascist dictators. "[228] Hitler felt disappointed with Mussolini's lack of antisemitism. democracies of the west"—describing the war as "the struggle of the fertile and young people against the sterile people moving to the sunset; it is the struggle between two centuries and two ideas", and as a "logical development of our Revolution". Returning to Italy, he spent a brief time in Milan, and in 1910 he returned to his hometown of Forlì, where he edited the weekly Lotta di classe (The Class Struggle). Repeatedly, he called for a day of vengeance. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born in Predappio, Emilia-Romagna, Italy. [135] Only 28% of the entire military Italian budgets between 1934–39 was spent on military modernization with the rest all being consumed by Mussolini's wars, which led to a rapid decline in Italian military power. Does there exist a German race? [77] Mussolini equated a nation's potential for economic growth with territorial size, thus in his view the problem of poverty in Italy could only be solved by winning the necessary spazio vitale.[78]. [citation needed] On 25 June 1941, he inspected the first units at Verona, which served as his launching pad to Russia. It is a feeling, not a reality. into the Socialist ranks. Soon after the marriage, Mussolini was imprisoned for the fifth time; but by then Comrade Mussolini had become recognized as one of the most gifted and dangerous of Italy’s younger socialists. "[202] Mussolini reportedly came close to being excommunicated from the Catholic Church around this time. Thus he claimed that the vast social changes that the war could offer meant that it should be supported as a revolutionary war.[50]. The King's controversial decision has been explained by historians as a combination of delusions and fears; Mussolini enjoyed wide support in the military and among the industrial and agrarian elites, while the King and the conservative establishment were afraid of a possible civil war and ultimately thought they could use Mussolini to restore law and order in the country, but failed to foresee the danger of a totalitarian evolution. Mack Smith, Denis. [23], The conflict between his parents about religion meant that, unlike most Italians, Mussolini was not baptized at birth and would not be until much later in life. straight wars, the last of which led to his overthrow by his own people. The truth we aim to teach them should appeal foremost to their fantasy, to their hearts, and only then to their minds". Mussolini assigned former ardito and deputy-secretary for Education Renato Ricci the task of "reorganizing the youth from a moral and physical point of view." [132] By recognizing Austria was within the German sphere of influence, Mussolini had removed the principal problem in Italo-German relations. In 1922, he took power by having a large group of men, "Black Shirts," march on Rome and threaten to take over the government. "[212] On several occasions, Mussolini spoke positively about Jews and the Zionist movement,[213] although Fascism remained suspicious of Zionism after the Fascist Party gained power. It was during this period, and after, that the nationalist and anti-Bolshevik strands of thought that would characterize his later politics began to emerge. He would later form the OVRA, an institutionalized secret police that carried official state support. In the same way, Mussolini argued that Italy was right to follow an imperialist policy in Africa because he saw all black people as "inferior" to whites. among all people); his mother taught elementary school. To Mussolini, children were little more than raw material from which to … Mussolini returned Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See. As the Germans approached Rome, Badoglio and the king fled Rome, leaving the Italian Army without orders. As head of state and Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Italian Social Republic, Mussolini used much of his time to write his memoirs. [195] His mother Rosa had him baptized into the Roman Catholic Church, and took her children to services every Sunday. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. very useful and brief :) helped me greatly with my assignemnt! Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini KSMOM GCTE (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist. he pushed Italy into war against the will of the people, ignoring the The couple had a son one year later and named him Benito Albino Mussolini. He [202], Mussolini publicly reconciled with the Pope Pius XI in 1932, but "took care to exclude from the newspapers any photography of himself kneeling or showing deference to the Pope. Alessandra Mussolini Parents – Alessandra Mussolini Family. to which he gave a violent suggestive and intransigent orientation. During this time, he published "Il Trentino veduto da un Socialista" ("Trentino as seen by a Socialist") in the radical periodical La Voce. Western Political Thought. Because the teachers at the village school could not control him, he was sent to board with the strict Salesian order at Faenza, where he proved himself more troublesome than ever, stabbing a fellow pupil with a penknife and attacking one of the Salesians who had attempted to beat him. Restored as Hitler's puppet in [184] Two days later on 27 April, they were stopped near the village of Dongo (Lake Como) by communist partisans named Valerio and Bellini and identified by the Political Commissar of the partisans' 52nd Garibaldi Brigade, Urbano Lazzaro.

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